Brain Damage – Types, Causes and Symptoms

Posted on Dec 11, 2017 by Gaurav

What Is Brain Damage And What Are Its Types?

Brain damage is any injury or trauma or condition that causes destruction or deterioration of brain cells. All brain injuries are head injuries, but not all head injuries are brain injuries. There are actually two types of brain injury, which are:

·         Traumatic Brain Injury or TBI, which are caused by an external force, such a blow to the head, a fall or an accident, which causes the brain to move inside the skull or causes any damage to the skull, which in turn damages the brain.

·         Acquired Brain Injury or ABI, which is associated with pressure on the brain and occurs at cellular level. The reason for this can be a brain tumour, or a neurological illness, or stroke.

Neither of the types are degenerative and occur after birth i.e. are not congenital. Congenital brain damage is a different condition, which occurs during developmental stage in the womb or because of genetics. It will not be detailed in this article.

Symptoms of Brain Damage

There are numerous symptoms of both types of brain damage, which fall into 4 types of categories, namely:

1.      Cognitive symptoms, which include:

·         Difficulty in processing information

·         Difficulty expressing thoughts

·         Difficulty understanding others

·         Shortened attention span

·         Inability understanding abstract concepts

·         Impaired decision making ability

·         Memory loss

2.      Perceptual symptoms, which include:

·         Changes in vision, hearing and sense of touch

·         Spatial disorientation

·         Warped sense of time

·         Disorders of smell and taste

·         Issues with balance

·         Heightened sensitivity to pain

3.      Physical symptoms, which include:

·         Persisting headaches

·         Extreme mental fatigue

·         Extreme physical fatigue

·         Paralysis

·         Tremors

·         Seizures

·         Sleep disorders

·         Sensitivity to light

·         Slurred speech

·         Loss of consciousness

4.      Behavioural symptoms, which include:

·         Irritability and impatience

·         Reduced tolerance for stress

·         Sluggishness

·         Heightened or dampened emotions or reactions

·         Denial of disability

·         Increased aggressiveness

Major Causes  of Brain Damage Disease

Brain damage usually occurs as a result of wide range of injuries, illnesses, or conditions. Brain injury can also occur if and when the brain is starved of oxygen for a prolonged period of time. Other causes of brain damage include:

Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Car accidents

  • Blow to the head

  • Sports injuries

  • Falls or accidents

  • Physical violence

Acquired Brain Injury

  • Poisoning or exposure to toxic substances

  • Infections

  • Strangulation, choking or drowning

  • Stroke

·         Heart attack

  • Tumours

  • Aneurysms

  • Neurological illnesses

  • Drug abuse

Is Brain Damage Treatable?

Brain damage is treatable by a neurologist. There are hospitals in Darbhanga where you can find top neurologists in Darbhanga now. Establishment of multi-specialty hospitals in many regions of Bihar has raised the level of medical care in Bihar putting them at par with hospitals in metropolitan cities. The neuro specialists in Darbhanga are some of the top neurologists in India.

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